borehole water treatment

Borehole Water Treatment Chemicals

Boreholes act as a self-sufficient water source for industrial purposes but can be contaminated with various impurities, like bacteria or toxic chemicals. Usually, borehole water treatment must be treated with specific chemicals to prevent various problems, such as scale formation or contamination. Borehole water will sometimes require pH adjustment through neutralization or oxidation, in order to remove certain contaminants, such as iron or manganese.  

borehole water treatment

How are contaminants like iron removed? 

An oxidant is added to the water, which oxidizes the iron to convert it from a soluble substance into an insoluble salt, making it much easier to remove through filtration. Some common chemical oxidants used for this process include: 

  • Hydrogen peroxide 
  • Sodium hypochlorite 
  • Ferric chloride 
  • Ozone 

Neutralization, or pH adjustment, can be utilized by adding either an acid (to lower pH) or an alkali (to raise pH), in order to improve the efficiency of the treatment. Some common neutralizing agents include: 

  • Sodium hydroxide 
  • Sulfuric acid 
  • Diluted hydrochloric acid 

How is scale formation prevented? 

Scale formation can occur as a result of water hardening, which is caused by calcium and magnesium ions and is prevented by the addition of scale inhibitors. The main goal of scale inhibition is to soften the water, by addition of: 

  • Phosphate ester 
  • Phosphoric acid 
  • Poly (acrylic acid) 

How is borehole water disinfected? 

The most common disinfectant added during water treatment is chlorine or hypochlorite, which kills bacteria and pathogens that can be present in the water.  

Are these chemicals safe for the environment?  

Most of the chemicals used for borehole water treatment present a low concern for environmental harm, but steps still need to be taken to utilize more environmentally preferred treatment chemicals. 

Looking for Borehole Water Treatment Chemicals?

Looking for an environmentally preferred product to satisfy your industrial water treatment needs? You can begin shopping for products here, or you can contact our experts here to find the best product for you! 

water treatment chemicals

Basic Water Treatment Chemicals

Treating water with chemicals is a necessary process for drinking and industrial purposes, that helps to protect the water from contamination, whether from disease-causing germs or hazardous substances. There are many basic water treatment chemicals that are used in treatment processes.

water treatment chemicals

Water treatment methods can use four different processes, which are: 

  • Boiler water treatment 
  • Cooling water treatment 
  • Purification of water 
  • Treatment of wastewater 

Some examples of types or qualities of water treatment chemicals include: 

  • Corrosion and scale inhibitors: 
    • These chemicals are added for the purpose of preventing scale formation, such as calcium carbonate, and corrosion in boilers, washing machines, or any equipment that involves water and has the potential of forming scale deposits.  
    • Some examples of corrosion inhibitor chemicals include phosphate esters or organic phosphonates.  
  • Oxidants: 
    • Oxidants are added to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels and to remove oxidizable organic/inorganic substances.  
    • Some examples of oxidants used are hydrogen peroxide and ozone.  
  • Oxygen scavengers:  
    • These scavengers are added for the purpose of absorbing oxygen molecules to prevent oxidation reactions from occurring, which can lead to the formation of toxic or undesired byproducts. 
    • Some examples of oxygen scavengers include carbohydrazide or hydroquinone.  
  • Coagulants: 
    • These chemicals are added to wastewater to collect slurry or particles that are not settling into large masses, forming a floc. This process is done to remove the solid particles from the water.  
    • Commonly used coagulants include aluminum sulfate, iron (III) chloride, or iron (III) sulfate 
  • Flocculants: 
    • Flocculation is the process that involves slow mixing of the wastewater to ensure the growth of the floc, improve the filtration and efficiently clean the water.  
    • Common flocculants added for water treatment include activated silica and polyacrylamide.  
  • Anti-microbial: 
    • These types of chemicals are added because of their ability to eliminate bacteria and parasites, to ensure that water is disinfected and safe to drink.  
    • Examples of anti-microbial chemicals added are chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and hypochlorite. 

Looking for Water Treatment Chemicals?

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Water treatment plants

What are the types of Water Treatment Plants?

There are several types of water treatment plants. The categories range from what type of water enters the plant to how the water is treated to the purity of the water leaving the plant.  

water treatment

Types of Water Treatment Plants 

  • Effluent (industrial wastewater) 
  • Sewage  
  • Common and Combined Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) 
  • Demineralization  
  • Reverse Osmosis  

There are more types of water treatment plants, but they all have a similar goal to treat contaminated water and produce cleaner water for the desired use of the output stream. The ones listed above provide a range of examples to describe what type of water is sent to water treatment plants and how it is treated. Other water treatment plants may also combine a few of these types for successful water treatment.  

Descriptions of the Water Treatment Plants 

  • Effluent Water Treatment Plants: Industrial wastewater enters effluent water treatment plants so, the water can be purified by removing non-toxic and toxic chemicals using drying and evaporation methods to help reduce the chance of pollution and aid in environmental protection. This type of plant is common among pharmaceutical and chemical companies. 
  • Sewage Water Treatment Plants: Sewage and contaminated water is sent through a pre-treatment process to remove large debris prior to entering a more intensive treatment process. This process uses a chemical, physical and biological process to remove organic matter and physical contaminants to make the water reusable. Activated sewage plants can be used to help the treatment of sewage water. Sewage water treatment plants can be found in residential, municipal, and commercial areas. 
  • Common and Combined Effluent Treatment Plants: Designed for small-scale treatment plants, they help reduce the water treatment costs for small-scale industry applications. They are used for small areas and when wastewater flows into the plant at a controlled, low rate. 
  • Demineralization Water Treatment Plants: Demineralization is used to remove minerals and dissolved solids from feedwater destined to enter boilers or other process streams. Ion exchange resins are used to soften and remove nitrate from the water which produces exceptional quality water. This treatment plant is commonly used for steam generation and cooling.  
  • Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plants: Using a high-pressure pump, wastewater is pushed through a reverse osmosis membrane that removes nearly all the salts in the water. This treatment plant can be found in industries such as semiconductor manufacturing and metal finishings for the food industry.  

Looking for Water Treatment Chemicals? 

Water treatment is one of the most important parts of any process. Ecolink can help find the best chemicals to maximize the success of your water treatment plants. Contact us to learn more about our water treatment chemicals! 

water treatment

What are the Reasons for Water Treatment?

Water treatment helps keep the water safe for people, the environment, and industry use by removing harmful toxins and bacteria that may be lurking in the water. 

water treatment

Safer Water for People 

People often don’t think about where the water they use comes from. The water must undergo an entire water treatment process for it to become safe to use. A few things water treatment can remove from the water include: 

  • Bacteria 
  • Parasites 
  • Viruses 
  • Chemicals 
  • Minerals 

Since these are not ideal for humans to encounter, water treatment can remove almost all the potentially harmful substances found in the water. Treating the water helps prevent sickness and disease.  

Discharging Water into the Environment 

Wastewater needs to be treated before being discharged back into the environment to meet standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). If the water does not meet the standards of removal prior to discharging into the environment, companies can face hefty fines and penalties until the effluent water meets the standards. When wastewater is treated properly, it is often cleaner than the water source it is being discharged into shown by turbidity and microbiological tests.  

Industrial Water Treatment 

With a high mineral content found in water, problems arise for use in industry. The minerals can build up in components of equipment, like boilers, resulting in scaling. Scaling can lead to several issues including: 

  • Reduces Performance 
  • Decreases energy efficiency 
  • Increases operational costs 
  • Shutting down equipment for cleaning 

Water treatment processes can be used to remove minerals so, these problems occur less frequently allowing for smooth operation and a more efficient plant.  

Water Treatment Techniques 

By using a combination of the following techniques, source water or wastewater can become equally usable for use in industry, human use, or environmental discharge.   

  1. Coagulation 
  2. Flocculation 
  3. Sedimentation 
  4. Filtration 
  5. Disinfection 
  6. Distillation 

Looking for Water Treatment Chemicals? 

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water treatment

What are the 4 Steps of Water Treatment

Water treatment follows a process of four steps. Follow along with the Ecolink team as we walk you through the 4 steps of water treatment. If you already know what you’re looking for, click show now below to browse our product selection!

water treatment


The four most common steps of water treatment include: 

  1. Coagulation and Flocculation 
  2. Sedimentation 
  3. Filtration 
  4. Disinfection 

A breakdown of each of the four steps in the water treatment process is described below. Additional steps may be added depending on the final use of the water.  

  • Coagulation and Flocculation 

Coagulation is the first step in water treatment and uses positively charged chemicals added to the water to neutralize negative charges held by solids. After neutralization, smaller particles bind with the added chemicals to form larger particles. 

Flocculation follows coagulation. The larger particles formed from coagulation begin a gentle mixing process, called flocculation. The larger particles collide, binding with each other to form larger, visible particles called flocs. They continue to grow as mixing continues until they reach an optimal size for the next step in water treatment. 

  • Sedimentation 

The floc and water mixture from the previous step is held in a tank to give the suspended particles time to settle due to the bottom of the tank due to gravity. The more time the water is undisturbed, the more particles will settle. Coagulation and flocculation make the sedimentation process more effective in separating since it increases the size of the particles.  

  • Filtration 

After sedimentation occurs, the water is almost clear. Filtration is used to remove the smaller dissolved particles that are in the clear water. Some types of dissolved particles include: 

  • Dust 
  • Chemicals 
  • Bacteria 
  • Parasites 

To filter out the dissolved particles, the water is passed through materials that vary in size and composition. Common materials used are sand, charcoal, and gravel. The flow rate of water is dependent on what is expected to be removed from the water using specific materials.  

  • Disinfection 

The final stage of water treatment involves adding a disinfectant to the water. The purpose of disinfection is to oxidize and eliminate any remaining organic matter to prevent the spread of bacteria and parasites. Disinfection also helps protect the water from other bacteria it may encounter during distribution. 

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